Studi Komparasi Pemberian Alas Penghangat dengan Cairan Infus Hangat terhadap Kejadian Shivery Durante Operasi Sectio Caesarea dengan Spinal Anestesi di RSUD Kebumen

Eky Harjoni 1, Budhy Ermawan 2, Tri Prabowo 3

Abstract

Bacground:The incidence of shivery in patients undergoing Caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia at District General Hospital of Kebumen (RSUD Kebumen) on March, 2011 was about 20 patients (75%). The standard operational procedure for handling shivery was not in existence and habitually implemented.

Objectives: To

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identify the effectivity differences of distributing warming tools and warm infusion liquid against shivery durante in Caesarean section cases with spinal anaesthesia.

Method: The was Quasi-experiment with prettest and posttest design. The subjects of study were patients of RSUD Kebumen undergoing Caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia at RSUD Kebumen on December, 2011-January, 2012. The criteria were patients undergoing Caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia either selective or emergency, physical status ASA

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I and II, 18-35 years of age, less than 2 hours for medical operation term, using bupivicain 0.5 mg as the spinal anaesthesia medicine, willing to be respondents. The exclusion criteria,i.e. patients with febris (peripheral temperature ≥ 380 C) and pre-operative hypothermia, having antipyretic 6 hours before medical operating, having heart disease history, clinically having a hypothyroid or hyperthyroid, spinal failure so the anaesthesia technic was changed to general anaesthesia,

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bleeding more than 20% of blood volume, patients with phetidin therapy. The samples were 46 people divided into two groups,i.e. a group with warmer blanket and a group with warm infusion liquid. Data was analysed with continuity correction.

Result: All subjects given warmer blankets are not shivery, but the group with warm infusion liquid were mostly not shivery (43.5%). There is effectivity differences in distributing warmer blankets and infusion liquid against shivery durante in Caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia at RSUD Kebumen, (p=0.000).

Conclusion: The warmer blankets are more effective than warm infusion liquid to prevent shivery durante in Caesarean section.

Keywords: warmer blanket, warm infusion liquid, shivery, spinal anaesthesia.

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 114-118

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on :Â 08-10-2012

Asupan Serat dan Kadar Kolesterol Mahasiswa Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Yogyakarta

Dwi Yuniarti,1 Irianton Aritonang,2 Weni Kurdanti,2 Sumirah,2 Maria H. Bakri,3

Abstract

Background: Riskesdas 2007 showed that in Yogyakarta, the prevalence of coronary heart disease was 7.3%, and high cholesterol was one of determinant factor. Fibers intake effected to the cholesterol levels, if fi ber intake was high, more faeces was disposed, including fat and cholesterol. 86,1% of Yogyakarta people was inadequate fi ber intake, especially from fruits and vegetables.

Objective: To know the relationship between fi ber intake with cholesterol levels.

Method: This was cross sectional study, in June-July 2010, at Yogyakarta

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Health Polytechnic. Population were all of Diploma III collegeum, fi rst and second degree. As many 99 collegeums were participants, taken by random systematic. Independent variable was fi ber intake, and dependent variable was cholesterol level. Fiber intake collected by food record 3 x 24 hours, and cholesterol level by CHOD-PAP. The data was analyzed by Karl Pearson correlation(α = 5%) Result: Most of the subjects were female (89.9%), age 17-22 years and had exercise habit (71.7%). The average of fi ber intake was 7.56 g/day with 100% less category. While the average of cholesterol level was 156.97 mg/dl with normal category (91.9%) and the rest was high borderline (8.1%). Karl Pearson correlation test showed that r = 0,153

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and p = 0,13, so that there was no correlation between fi ber intake and cholesterol level.

Conclusion: All subject less of fi ber intake, but most of them have normal cholesterol level. There was no correlation between fi ber intakes with cholesterol levels.

Keywords: Fiber intake, cholesterol level, collegeum

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 110-113

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Pengaruh Senam Nifas terhadap Pengeluaran Lokhea pada Primipara Post Partum di Rumah Bersalin (RB) Rachmi Tahun 2011

Yani Widyastuti, Suherni, Endah Marianingsih

Abstract

Background:The process of health recovery in postpartum period was very important for mothers after giving birth. After giving birth, there was a change of uterus, fundus uterus was as high as navel, and uterine involution occurred every day. Process of post partum exercise to lokhea secretion in post partum at Rachmi Maternity Hospital (RB RACHMI)Yogyakarta 2011.

Method: The method was true experimental study with pre and post test control group design. The subjects of this study were all post partum patients at Rachmi Maternity Hospital on 1 August, 2011 – 30 November, 2011. The independent variable was post partum exercise and the dependent variable was lokhea secretion of post partum pervaginam, checked every 24 hours till lokhea serosa, counted daily. Research subject of post partum primipara mothers were about 80 persons, divided into 2 groups, 40 each. Colour standard was used to measure lokhea color changes. It used T-test analysis with level of confi dence by 95% (α=0.05%).

Result: Lokhea serosa secretion usually occured in post partum exercise on day 6, whereas in group that didn’t do exercise,it occured on day 7. There are signifi cant difference of lockhea secretion between mother practicing post partum exercise and mother not practicing (p=0.00).

Conclusion: There is infl uence of post partum exercise to lokhia secretion in post partum primipara at RB

Rachmi Yogyakarta in 2011.

Keywords: Post partum, post partum exercise, lokhea

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 105-109

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on : 08-10-2012

Pengalaman Pasien dengan Colostomy dalam Konteks Asuhan Keperawatan Kanker Kolorektal di Wilayah DKI Jakarta

Umi Istianah,1 Ratna Sitorus,2 Yati Afi yanti 3

Abstract

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Colostomy was an ostomy made in colon intended to the fecal secretion or promote healing process. The making of this ostomy affects in person’s dalily life both physical and psychosocial aspects.

Objective: To explore patient experiences living with colostomy and how they takes the meaning from this experience.

Method: The study was phenomenology qualitative research collected with deep interview. The research was conducted in DKI Jakarta in 2008. The participants were patients of colorectal cancer with colostomy, determined by purposive sampling with criteria,i.e. fi xed colostomy caused by colorectal cancer, minimum 2 months of colostomy, well ability in verbal communication, willing to be participants. There were 7 patients becoming participants in this research. Collected datas were record of interview and fi eld note forms that were analyzed with Collaizi technic. This study identifi ed 5 themes included; 1) differ from others normal person in daily need fulfi llment at pasca colostomy act, 2) having colostomy, affected some sorts of inconvenience both in physical and psychosocial aspects in person’s daily life, 3) causing a dependency

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as usual after having colostomy, 4) grieving respons at the beginning after having colostomy act, and 5) patients with colostomy need professional health care.

Result and Conclusion: Living with colostomy isn’t problem, but it need changes from normaly lifesyle. Then it need specifi c guidance for the patient with colostomy.

Key words: colostomy, patient, colorectal cancer, nursing care.

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL

TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 100-104

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on :Â 08-10-2012

Pengetahuan dan Praktek Higiene Sanitasi Penjamah Makanan serta Mutu Makanan yang Disajikan di Kantin SD Kota Yogyakarta

Tjarono Sari 2, Setyowati 2, Elza Ismail 2

Abstract

Background: Approximately 80% of illnesses were caused by pathogens bacteria. Hygiene of food sanitation efforts were needed to prevent food of being contaminated. In the United States, 25% of all diseases spread through food, caused by infected food processing and poor personal hygiene.

Objective: To determine the correlation between knowledge and sanitation hygiene practices of food handlers and food quality served based at canteens of elementary schools in Yogyakarta.

Method: The study was cross sectional research at 30 canteens of elementary schools in Yogyakarta on July- November in 2011. The subject was food handlers who preparing, processing, and serving the menus and willing to be a subject. The objects were main menu and snacks produced at the canteens. Knowledge and sanitation hygiene practices of food handlers were observed. Knowledge was gained from the questionnaires fillid in by the respondents, whereas the hygiene sanitation practices of the food handlers conducted direct observation based on checklist. The food quality was valued based on organoleptic and microbiological tests by conducting measurement germs numbers total amount at Health Laboratory Bureau of Yogyakarta. The data was analysed by pearson correlation (product moment)/spearman test.

Result: The study showed that the level of knowledge of food handlers in high and low category is 50 %, whereas hygiene practices of food handlers is 60% in both categories. Consumers’ favorite food is deliciously oily and 80% of the products have germs numbers above quality standards. There is signifi cant correlation between hygiene practices of food handlers and food quality by microbiological and

organoleptic tests.

Conclusion; Hygiene practices of food handlers have corrrelation with food quality,

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Keywords: knowledge, hygiene practice, food quality, canteen.

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 95-99

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Posted on :Â 08-10-2012

Keberadaan Jentik Aedes Sp. dan Kasus Chikungunya di Desa- Desa Sekitar Perkebunan Karet Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kedawung I Kabupaten Sragen Tahun 2011

Slamet Waluyo1, Yamtana2, Sarjito Eko Windarso2

Abstract

Background: Chikungunya was disease caused by virus and spread by mosquito of Aedes sp. The highest amount of Chikungunya sufferes were in working are of Puskesmas Kedawung I includes Bendungan village by 58,5% and Kedawung village by 33%. Both of the villages directly bordering on rubber plantation.

Objective:This research was conducted to identify the relationship between existence of larvae of Aedes sp with chikungunya cases in villages surrounding rubber plantation.

Method: The study was case control study in both Bendungan and Kedawung villages in Sragen in 2011. The case groups were the whole houses with chikungunya cases in Srimulyo, Druju, Gondang, and Ngabean hamlet as many as 76 houses, whereas the control groups were houses without chikungunya case with 76 houses as well. Existence of Aedes sp. was identifi ed with direct observation in area of rubber plantation by installing ovitraps and houses visitation. Data was analysed with Chi-Square.

Result: The study shows that in area of rubber plantation, Aedes sp. fi nd in case group by 58 ovitraps (38.2%) and control group by 32 ovitraps (21.1%). In settlement houses, larvae of Aedes sp. fi nd in case group by 42 houses (27.6%) and in control group by 26 houses (17.1%). There are signifi cant relationship between the existence larvae of Aedes sp. and the cases of chikungunya, either in area of rubber plantation or in settlement houses.

Conclusion; There is signifi cant relationship between existence of larvae of Aedes sp. and chikungunya cases around villages surrounding area of rubber plantation in working area of Puskesmas Kedawung I, Kedawung, Sragen.

Keywords: larvae of Aedes sp., chikungunya, area of rubber plantation.

Item type : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 91-94

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on : 08-10-2012

Pengaruh Stigma HIV/AIDS terhadap Kepatuhan Pemakaian Kondom pada Pria ODHA

Sari Hastuti 1, Siswanto Agus Wilopo 2, Budi Wahyuni 3

Abstract

Background: Heterosexual transmission currently become the main way of HIV transmission. One of the main sources of transmission is from her sexual partner. Transmission’s chain can be greatly reduced by high compliance of condom use in every sexual intercourse. Condoms are proven effective and effi cient to prevent HIV transmission if used appropriately and consistent. But stigma of HIV/ AIDS is the biggest challenge in its management efforts.

Objective: To indentify infl uence of HIV/AIDS stigma on compliance of condom use in male PLWHA

Methods: Cross-sectional design, mixmethod (quantitative approach and supported by qualitative data). The study was conducted in Yogyakarta on February-June 2011 on 68 male PLWHA who meet the inclution criteria. Independent variable was HIV/AIDS stigma, and dependen variable was compliance of condom use in male PLWHA. Data collected primarily using questionnaire and indept interview. Bivariable analysis used likelihood ratio (chi2), Rasio Prevalens (CI.95%) and Population Attribute Risk (PAR), the signifi cance level at 0.05. Qualitative data analysis used Logical Analysis

Results: There is a statistically signifi cant relationship between HIV/AIDS stigma to compliance of condom use in male PLWHA (p=0,049) as follow: (high stigma to non-compliance: RP 2.47 – 95% CI. 0.74-8.29; high stigma to low compliance: RP 0.94 – 95% CI. 0.49-1.80 ; moderate stigma to non-compliance: RP 1:46 – 95% CI. 0.37-5.62; moderate stigma to low compliance: RP 1.15 – 95% CI. 0.69-1.89). However, this may be different from the situation in the population. PAR analysis found that if the stigma eliminated, then 10% noncompliance of condom use can be avoided. The results of qualitative analysis at 5 positive deviance found that all of them performing partner notifi cation, there are internal and external factors as the reason for compliance, as well as reinforcing and weaken factor on behavior.

Conclusion: Although HIV/AIDS stigma are likely reduce compliance of condom use, but partner notification, coqnitif access, and interaction among PLWHA are more likely affecting the compliance of condom use.

Keywords: HIV/ IDS stigma, compliance of condom use, male PLWHA

Item type : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 83-90

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on : 08-10-2012

Kondisi Fisik Sumur Gali terhadap Keberadaan Larva Nyamuk Aedes Sp. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Indah Werdiningsih

Abstract

Background : Most of Yogyakarta people meet the needs of clean water from wells. This time, dig water wells lost of physical observation, because its location was deep. The puddle which no direct contact with the ground was a place for mosquito Aedes sp for laying its eggs.

Objective: To know the relations of dig water wells physical condition with the existence of Aedes sp larvae.

Method: This was cross-sectional study on Banguntapan 2011. Ninety nine wells of people with DBD and 100 meters wells distance from the case of DBD were observed. The variable was well physical condition included walls, how to capture water wells, layout, depth, closure, turbidity, temperature, humidity and lighting to the existence of the larvae of Aedes sp. The wells was observed by walls conditions, water dipper or pump machines, the depth, open all or part of, and the lighting. The data was analyzed by chi square test and sperman correlation.

Result: The research show that 55,56 % were found larva positively, with types: aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae of Aedes sp. which were found on wells that plastered with cement was 84.8%, water wells with pumps and machines as much as 48.5%, dipper wells without cover 67.7%, in total roofed were 39,3%, depth 1-5,99m were 83,8%, water temperature 2 -27, 99°C were 90.9%, lighting 100-399 lux were 30.3%, NTU turbidity 61,58%, humidity 80- 89.99% were 46.5%. The lighting had & hair skin. My Lash amazing. This. Coat correlation with existence of larvae.

Conclusion: The lighting have a signifi cant correlation with the existence of larvæ.

Keywords: Aedes sp., the physical condition of dig water wells

Item type : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 78-82

 Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on : 08-10-2012

Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Praktik Pengawas Menelan Obat (PMO) TB Paru dan Kesembuhan Pengobatan TB Paru di Kecamatan Baron dan Kertosono, Nganjuk

I Ketut Wijayadi, Achmad Husein, Lilik Hendrarini

Abstract

Bacground:Tuberculosis (TB) as the third highest cause of deaths (9.4% of total mortality). The Indonesian government had already introduced “Directly Observed Treatment Short-course” (DOTS) startegy since 1995/1996. DOTS means a strategy that gives much hopes for TB sufferers. It had been implemented since 2000 in Nganjuk. Cure rates of pulmonary TB patients in Baron Sub-District and Kertosono, Nganjuk District was still under the national standard (85% minimum).The success of DOTS in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis was influenced by various factors including the behavior of DOT for pulmonary tuberculosis patients .

Objective:To determine the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and DOT practices for pulmonary tuberculosis patients with the healing process of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the Sub-District of Baron and Kertosono, Nganjuk Disrict.

Method:This was observational research with cross-sectional design. The subjects were all DOT of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Independent variables are the knowledge, attitudes, and tuberculosis DOT practices measured with questionnaire that was tested its validity and reliability, whereas the dependent variables were the healed of pulmonary TB patients seen from BTA (+) test. The data was analysed by Rank Spearman, Kendall Tau, and nonparametric correlations.

Result:The respondents knowledge with terms of duty ≥ 4 months (p=0.018) and knowledge level score by > 1-19 (p=0.035), attitudes with scores by > 15 (p=0.044), whereas the DOT practices for pulmonary TB patients with certain condition (knowledge and attitudes) (p=0.013).

Conclusion: There is a signifi cant relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and DOT practices for pulmonary TB patients with their healing process.

Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, DOT practices, and pulmonary TB healing process

Item type : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 72-77

Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted : 08-10-2012

Jumlah Leukosit dan Trombosit Pada Petani padi di Desa Rajabasa Jaya Bandar Lampung

Fitria Saftarina 1, Agus Suwarni 2

Abstract

Background:Pesticides are poisons to eradicate pests so as to increase agricultural production and plantation. On the other hand, pesticide impact on the health, especially farmers who had direct

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contact to pesticides. One of the health impacts caused the changes in blood components namely number of leukocyte and platelet.
Objetives: To know the number farmer’s leukocyte and platelet
Method: This was an analytical research study with cross

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sectional approach, in Rajabasa Jasa village, Bandar Lampung, 2010. The samples of this study were 67 respondents. Data were collected through questionnaires and examination of venous blood samples. The independent variable was the exposure to pesticides, including years of working, duration of spraying, various kinds of pesticide,and frequency of spraying. Dependent variable was number of leukocyte and platelet.
Result:This study shows that 16 people (23.9%) indicated the increasing number of leukocyte and all study subjects had normal platelet count. Correlation of exposure pesticides with number leukocyte: years of working (p=0,504); various kinds of pesticides (p=0,202); duration of spraying (p=0,070); and frequency of spraying (p=0,027).
Conclutions:It is concluded that increasing number of leukocyte of rice farmers who used pesticide at Rajabasa Jaya village, Bandar Lampung up to 23.9% and risk factor that are signifi cantly correlated with the increasing of leukocyte number was frequency of spraying. A suggestion for related agencies health and agriculture is to do training, counseling, and guidance on pest management of rice farmers.

Keywords: leukocyte, platelet, farmer.

Item type  : Jurnal Teknologi Kesehatan

Bibliografi : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KESEHATAN, Vol. 8, No. 2, Juli 2012: 63-71

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Posted by : ppmdirektorat

Posted on :Â 08-10-2012